# Roman To Integer

Roman numerals are represented by seven different symbols: I, V, X, L, C, D and M. I = 1, V=5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500, M = 1000

For example, 2 is written as II in Roman numeral, just two one's added together. 12 is written as XII, which is simply X + II. The number 27 is written as XXVII, which is XX + V + II.

Roman numerals are usually written largest to smallest from left to right. However, the numeral for four is not IIII. Instead, the number four is written as IV. Because the one is before the five we subtract it making four. The same principle applies to the number nine, which is written as IX. There are six instances where subtraction is used:

• I can be placed before V (5) and X (10) to make 4 and 9.

• X can be placed before L (50) and C (100) to make 40 and 90.

• C can be placed before D (500) and M (1000) to make 400 and 900.

Given a roman numeral, convert it to an integer.

``package questionsimport _utils.UseCommentAsDocumentationimport java.util.*import kotlin.collections.LinkedHashMapimport kotlin.test.assertEquals/** * Roman numerals are represented by seven different symbols: I, V, X, L, C, D and M. * I = 1, V=5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500, M = 1000 * * For example, 2 is written as II in Roman numeral, just two one's added together. * 12 is written as XII, which is simply X + II. The number 27 is written as XXVII, which is XX + V + II. * * Roman numerals are usually written largest to smallest from left to right. However, the numeral for four is not IIII. * Instead, the number four is written as IV. * Because the one is before the five we subtract it making four. * The same principle applies to the number nine, which is written as IX. * There are six instances where subtraction is used: * * * I can be placed before V (5) and X (10) to make 4 and 9. * * X can be placed before L (50) and C (100) to make 40 and 90. * * C can be placed before D (500) and M (1000) to make 400 and 900. * * Given a roman numeral, convert it to an integer. */@UseCommentAsDocumentationprivate fun romanToInt(s: String): Int {    val charMap = mapOf('I' to 1, 'V' to 5, 'X' to 10, 'L' to 50, 'C' to 100, 'D' to 500, 'M' to 1000)    return parse(s, 0, charMap, 0)}fun parse(s: String, index: Int, map: Map<Char, Int>, total: Int): Int {    val first = s.getOrNull(index) ?: return total    val second = s.getOrNull(index + 1) ?: return total + map[first]!!    var newTotal = total    // Subtraction case    return if (        (first == 'I' && (second == 'V' || second == 'X')) ||        (first == 'X' && (second == 'L' || second == 'C')) ||        (first == 'C' && (second == 'D' || second == 'M'))    ) {        newTotal += (map[second]!! - map[first]!!)        // +2 as we tried to pair two roman char together so skip the pairs        parse(s, index + 2, map, newTotal)    } else {        // Didn't get paired so use this character individually        parse(s, index + 1, map, total + map[first]!!)    }}fun main() {    assertEquals(1994, romanToInt("MCMXCIV"))    assertEquals(3, romanToInt("III"))    assertEquals(4, romanToInt("IV"))    assertEquals(9, romanToInt("IX"))}``

Updated on 2021-10-12